English: Title-page illustration from a Tractatus perutilis et completus de fractura cranei (“Very Useful and Complete Treatise on the Fracture of the Skull”)
|Source||Tractatus perutilis et completus de fractura cranei (https://archive.org/details/tractatusperutil00bere)|
English: Allegorical engraving of the Garden of Health
|Source||Originally from Hortus Sanitatis by Johannes de Capua; reprinted in a 1923 catalogue of incunabula (https://archive.org/details/incunabulamedica00leos/page/14/mode/2up)|
English: Comparison of fossil Allosaurus leg with standing man
|Source||Dinosaurs, with Special Reference to the American Museum Collections (https://archive.org/details/dinosaurswithspe00matt_0/page/34/mode/2up)|
English: Phrenological chart from an American magazine, 1834
|Source||American Magazine of Useful and Entertaining Knowledge, Volume 1, Issue 6 (https://books.google.com/books?id=mGvXAAAAMAAJ&dq=illustrated%20magazine&pg=PA36#v=onepage&q&f=false)|
From the accompanying article: There are twenty moral and twenty intellectual powers. Passing by the arrangement of classes, which can be taken up again, we furnish a table to the wood-cuts of the heads.
1. Philoprogenitiveness, the love of offspring, is situated immediately over the hollow of the neck. Its uses are, the preservation of the species, connecting with it parental affection and sympathy. Its abuse, the spoiling of children by excessive indulgence.
2. Amativeness, the root of conjugal affection. Its abuse is, immoral desires, the fountain of innumerable evils. It lies rather beneath and on each side of the former.
3. Destructiveness, the taking away of life. Its use is the removal of obstacles and the annihilation of evil. Its abuses are cruelty, murder, wrath, severity of manner and speech. Its organ is behind the back and upper part of the ear.
4. Constructiveness, the power of putting together. Its use is in the mechanical arts, &c, and its abuse is in spending time over useless and unprofitable inventions. Its organ is at the temple, over the outer part of number:
5. Concentrativeness, the power of bringing the mind to bear upon given subjects. Its use is in steadily performing the social and relative duties, and in reasoning. Its abuse is over-abstraction of the mind ; excessive attachment to particular objects or places. Its organ lies over the middle of Philoprogenitiveness.
6. Attachment: this is the root of friendship, and, combined with Amativeness, produces marriage. Its organ is on each side of the previous one, being closely allied to it.
7. Combativeness, the inclination to meet danger, and to resist attack. Its abuses are a love of contention, and willingness to dispute or assault. Lies behind the ear, upward from Amativeness.
8. Ideality: this gives a taste for the beautiful and sublime, and is large in poets and imaginative writers. Its abuses are, a too great love of change, extravagant ideas, and a disposition to neglect the duties of life, and live in the region of romance. It lies on the side of the head, between Faith and Constructiveness, with its fore-part resting on Music.
9. Self-esteem, confidence in our own power and worth, enabling us properly to estimate our true value. Abuse, love of dominion, pride, arrogancy, egotism. Situated in the middle of the head.
10. Approbativeness accompanies Self-esteem, and corrects the abuse of it. But, when too large, produces an excessive wish for praise, vain-glory, notoriety. It lies on each side of Self-esteem.
11. Cautiousness: this is easily understood. Its abuses are jealousy, unfounded apprehensions, and with deficient firmness, occasions irresolution, wavering. It lies outward from the former.
12. Faith: this, properly directed, holds up the mind, amid earthly trials, and inspires a devout trust in the Deity. Its abuses are, credulity, a disposition to believe any thing, leading to superstition. Lies upward from Ideality, and backward from Congruity.
13. Firmness: this is easily understood. The abuses of Firmness are, self-will, obstinacy, stubbornness. Situated on the upper crown, above Self-esteem.
14. Conscientiousness: neither is this difficult of being understood. Its abuses are, remorse for innocent mistakes, and great grief for trifling errors; and when abused by education, leads people to persecute, under the impression that they are doing what is right. Lies on either side of Firmness.
15. Secretiveness: so also is this easily understood. Its abuses are, cunning, ability to hide our designs till they are ripe for execution, &c. Lies downwards from Cautiousness, and above Destructiveness.
16. Imitation; easily understood.
17. Veneration: the proper object of this is Deity, but it also produces respect for authority, &c. Abuses, undue regard for old customs, opinions, authority, &.c. Lies at the opening of the head, between the organs of Hope, which is numbered as
18. And easily understood. Abuses, absurd or extravagant expectations, deceitful promises, &,c. Lies outward from Veneration, and forward from Conscientiousness.
19. Acquisitiveness; both the use and the abuse easily understood. When this organ is largely developed, and accompanied with deficient Benevolence and Conscientiousness, it produces Covetousness and Theft. Lies forward from Secretiveness.
20. Benevolence: the previous twenty numbers, all belong to the feelings, or affective faculties.
21. Comparison. 22. Eventuality. 23. Casualty. 24. Congruity. 25. Individuality. 26. Locality. 27. Time. 28. Order. 29. Form. 30. Size. 31. Weight. 32. Color. 33. Natural Language. 34. Artificial Language. 35. Number. 36. Tune. 37. Motion. 38. Touch. 39. Scent. 40. Aliment.
English: Progress of the cholera epidemic from 1902 to 1910
|Source||Larousse mensuel illustré, 1911 (https://archive.org/stream/laroussemensueli02auguoft#page/156/mode/1up)|
English: Humorous engraving of a dentist from the 1880s
|Source||Specimen of Wood Engravings (https://archive.org/stream/specimenofwooden00altc#page/10/mode/1up)|